Choosing wax for shugaring: how to choose the best heater of sugar paste

Unfortunately, not all have constantly heated cabinets (in winter and off season) for work or there are often cases when materials for work were delivered to you right in front of another customer, from the cold. Some craftsmen put a closed container on the central heating battery or in the sink, turn on hot water and plug the cork in, let the paste stand for a few minutes.

3. By heating the shugaring, you prolong the time of the “working window” of the material.

What does this mean? Many brands of pastes, ready to work immediately from the banks and do not require mandatory heating (including ours). However, it takes some time before it warms up to a comfortable temperature in the hands of the master and gathers heat from the client’s body. It usually takes about 1-2 minutes to bring a lump of paste into a “combat” state.

In the conditions of a dense stream of clients and the most loaded work schedule, all these minutes for “warming up” are formed into good floors, or even a whole hour of “idle” time by the end of the day. Super professionals who know how to work like real Sensei. If you carefully choose the density (for example, pre-mixing different densities in a separate container) of the working paste, then the pros with experience can obviously choose a slightly thicker paste than necessary. When heated, the material is expected to become more fluid and elastic, however, already in work, during the procedure, this “density stock leveled by preheating” makes it possible to work with one piece sometimes 10 times more stitches than using the conventional technique.

This method is much more complicated than usual, but sooner or later, all the masters come to it. A huge amount of time is saved, and in the work of a master, time is money!

4. But, sugar paste is very easy to overheat!

Shugaring is a very delicate and capricious material. Often, overheating even at 0.5-1 degrees Celsius makes it impossible to work comfortably. We have to wait until the pasta podosynet, and this again is the loss of precious time. Remember, pasta has a very high energy intensity and very long "gives" heat. We recommend using special shugaring heaters or professional wax grades with fine temperature control. In addition, once setting the right temperature, you still need to take into account many parameters, the understanding of which, unfortunately, comes only with experience.

Everything affects the work: the temperature in the office, the initial temperature of the paste, the density, the temperature of the hands of the master, the client’s body (everyone knows that in winter, for example, there are a lot of clients with cold feet), and even sometimes the humidity level in the office. Over time, you will begin to feel the paste "at your fingertips" automatically, and while you are not quite sure, remember that it is better not to heat up than to overheat.

The entire line of LUXURY PRO was created with the ability to work with it without preheating. We recommend that all beginners start with this technique and gradually, mastering the basics and all the nuances, experiment and gain experience in this difficult matter. Over time, an understanding and a “sense of material” will come to you on your own and you will understand when you can start using heaters. Do not rush things and be very careful, and your clients will thank you themselves and “vote with a ruble”, choosing you as their Permanent Master!

What is a sugar paste heater, and how is it used in shugaring?

What is wax wax? Is it necessary in work or without it you can do?

Yes, this device is really an important attribute in shugaring. It is designed not only to heat the sugar paste, but also to maintain its temperature at the level set by the master. Automatic temperature control is provided by one or more thermostat independent from each other.

The warm mass tightly envelops all the hairs and at the same time expands the pores, as a result of which the hair removal process is facilitated.

How and which lamp is better to choose for shugaring: lighting the procedure of sugar hair removal

Metal spatula for shugaring: how to choose the best option to help with the sugar depilation

Pros and cons of waxing when used in shugaring

All wax mills, regardless of type and model, have common advantages. As for the drawbacks, they differ for devices of different designs.

Common advantages of waxing for shugaring:

  • Compactness
    The device can be taken on the road.
  • Heating rate
    Caramel heats up to the right temperature in a few minutes.
  • Automated warm-up
    If you heat the mass for hair removal in a water bath or in a microwave, you cannot accurately determine the heating temperature. The composition can burn, the risks of getting burns are high, and the epilation session itself takes longer.
    Voskoplav considerably facilitates and accelerates the process of shugaring. Paste does not need to constantly stir and follow her. And the temperature does not rise above the specified value, so the weight for hair removal will not deteriorate for sure.
  • Volume
    Sugar paste is heated uniformly, all entirely, but not in portions.
  • Convenience, time saving
    Caramel retains the desired consistency throughout the procedure. The master does not have to reheat it every time.
  • Security
    Thanks to the integrated thermostat, there is no risk of getting burned.
  • Efficiency
    Thanks to the shugaring heater, caramel is consumed less. Voskoplav itself consumes a minimum amount of electricity.
  • Durability
    Since the apparatus has a minimum of functions, it almost never breaks.

The disadvantages of each type of device specific.

How waxtoplav works: basic principles of the device

The advantages of using wax-melts are obvious. But how simple is the device to use?

The device for heating caramel consists of three main elements:

  • stand for capacity
  • heating piece
  • buttons, control knobs.

The mechanism of its operation is similar to the principle of operation of a yogurt maker, a multicooker, or a device for heating baby bottles.

The master sets the desired temperature using the buttons that are located in front or on the side panel and turns on the device. Refiners are safe for home use.

Cassette (cartridge) wax-melt

The device is designed to heat the sugar paste, placed in the cassette. The cassette is inserted into a special slot and turn on the device in the network. Cartridge connectors can be from one to three (devices with three connectors are usually used in salons).

As the apparatus heats up, the sugar paste melts. Almost all models of cassette waxing devices have a window through which it is possible to control how much paste remains in the cartridge.

The cassette heater on top has a roller applicator. With the help of a roller, the sugar paste after heating is distributed to the desired part of the body. To ensure a thin and uniform application of the mass for depilation, a nozzle can be put on the tape (they are made in different widths). Different nozzles perfectly treat any areas of your face or body. They also reduce the risk of burns.

Advantages of cassette heaters

  • compactness
  • ease of use
  • large selection of models
  • security.

The device does not heat up to 60 degrees, so the risk of burns is minimal. Care for such a heater is also easy. The remains of sugar paste are removed from the cartridge with vegetable oil.

Heater Cons

  • If the cartridge does not fit tightly in the compartment, the paste will leak, the cartridge itself may fall out during operation.
  • If the volume of one cassette is not enough, you will have to spend time warming up the next batch.
  • If the heater is powered from the mains, it is recommended to turn it off during the session, so you need to choose a model that maintains the temperature for a long time.

The most popular brands of cassette devices

  • TNL - designed for 2 cassettes of 110 grams each, there is a stable base. The heater maintains the temperature for a long time after disconnecting from the mains. Power 13 watts. Manufacturer's warranty 3 months.
  • IGROBEAUTY - it is calculated on 1 cartridge, works from a network. There is a side window and indicator light. Power 40 watts. 12 months warranty.

The average price of cassette heaters is 450-500 rubles.

Externally a canned heater is most often a plastic rectangle, in the center of which is a bowl with a temperature regulator (the mixture is installed in the bowl directly in the bank) and cord for inclusion in the network.

There is also a double heater, which has two bowls. With it you can use two types of mixture or set different temperature of heating the sugar paste for processing different parts of the body. Cans up to 400 ml are placed in a can of wax-melt. Some models allow you to warm up to 800 ml of paste at once.

The maximum heating temperature reaches 120 degrees. To reduce the risk of burns, it is better to buy a model with a built-in thermostat. The device maintains the desired temperature with an accuracy of 5 ° C.

Cons wax

  • large dimensions of the container for heating sugar paste,
  • requires greater caution in operation, must have a lid on top that protects against splashing mass,
  • the range of models of canned heaters is small,
  • the price is almost 2 times higher than that of cassette devices,
  • suitable only for carrying shugaring in spitting equipment.

Popular manufacturers

  • IRISK - designed for 2 cassettes, there is a stable base, a window for controlling the paste residue. Power 80 watts. Long maintains the temperature after disconnecting from the network.
  • RUNAIL CARDI - volume 400 ml, power 100 watts. 6 months warranty. The disadvantage is a long warm-up time (about 30 minutes).

The average price of canned heaters is 1500-3000 rubles.

Preparation for shugaring procedure

Sugar paste is actually a viscous caramel. In the shops you can now find different types of it. It is worth choosing shugaring with the expectation of what kind of hair and in which area you plan to remove. As a rule, sugar depilation products contain aromatic or caring additives. There are several techniques that use shugaring for depilation, but first you should describe the process of preparing for hair removal.

  1. Before you start the procedure itself, you need to heat the paste to body temperature. This can be done both in waxing and in microwave. Do not heat the shugaring too hard, then you can just burn the epilated places.
  2. Before you apply sugar paste to the required place, you should check it for the presence of contraindications such as various dermatological diseases, allergies.
  3. Then you should prepare the site for the procedure. To do this, you need to clean the skin, you can use a special pre-epilating agent. In no case should you use alcohol and any other alcohol-containing substances to prepare your skin. This will make the skin dry, and the depilation process itself is unnecessarily painful. Further, after cleaning the epidermis, you should use talc, which will remove excess moisture from the skin and reduce injuries during the procedure. Talc is especially important in such “delicate” areas as bikinis and armpits. The sugar mass simply will not be taken on wet skin, so if you notice moisture, you should additionally process the area with talcum powder.

Once the required area is prepared for the procedure, you can begin. The procedure is simple only at first glance.

Shugaring paste

It is necessary to evenly apply a layer of paste in the direction against the growth of hair. Before you apply the paste, you need to roll it into a ball of medium size in order to make it convenient to distribute over the skin. The procedure of shugaring differs from wax epilation in that sugar paste should be applied against the growth of hair, and remove the layer itself on the growth of hair. In waxing, everything is done exactly the opposite. That is why hair removal with sugar paste is less painful compared to wax.

It should be as careful as possible when applying the paste on the legs, the strip should be quite dense and narrow. When you have completely covered a small area with sugar paste against hair growth, you need to sharply tear it in the opposite direction. It does not need to pull the paste up, it should be a sharp and clear hand movement in the horizontal plane. After that, repeat the action on the next skin area. Over time, the mass will become clogged with hairs, when it will not stick well, you need to throw away this portion of sugar paste and take a new one, approximately the same size.

Technique bandages

This technique is widely used in cases where it is necessary to get rid of hair on a large area of ​​skin as soon as possible. A bandage is a strip of strong paper or fabric. In order to make the depilation bandage technique, it is necessary to apply the paste.

For bandages use exclusively soft mass for a shugaring. After applying to the paste should be put strips, firmly attaching them to the sugar paste.

Next, you need to tear the strips of fabric along with the mass, along the hairline. If you tear too abruptly, you can get bruises, be careful. The consumption of sugar paste when using bandage technology is much higher, but the result can be obtained faster.

Smoothing technique of using paste and skin care after hair removal

In this technique, sugar paste is applied not by hand, but by a special spatula. To do this, use tools from different materials: wood, plastic. However, special metal spatulas are most suitable. They are quite difficult to damage or break when applying the mixture. Also, this technique saves sugar paste and fabric, which makes it not only simple, but also economical. Wax, as you know, is applied with special sticks, which in the case of sugar will not work: the mass is applied quite hard, so the sticks for wax break literally one by one.

After depilation, apply something moisturizing to the skin. For a few days it is worthwhile to limit the effect of alcohol-containing substances on epilated skin, this can seriously damage it. During the day after hair removal should not visit the baths and saunas, sunbathing. The skin after depilation is incredibly susceptible. Referring to the shugaring, many women clarify: "I use a special tool after hair removal." It will provide quick recovery of the upper layers of the epidermis. After the procedure itself, wipe the skin with a damp cloth or wash off the rest of the paste with warm water without a washcloth.

It is worth noting that after using sugar paste, the skin becomes soft and silky.


It was told with detailed examples of how to use paste for shugaring. As you can see, this is a relatively simple method of hair removal, much more painless than depilation with wax or epilator.

First you need to get used to the material and learn how to apply it correctly. As you know, the first damn lump, do not be surprised if you do not succeed the first time. However, the more you try, the easier and faster the procedure. Over time, the skin of the epilated zones will significantly improve and soften from the use of paste.In addition, hair growth decreases over time, they grow soft and thin, so removing them is much easier.

How to use sugar paste for shugaring: from warming up and applying to skin care after depilation

The procedure of shugaring is simple and quite possible not only for professionals from beauty salons, but also for beginners. The main thing is to choose a sugar paste for hair removal and use it correctly.

Experts of Alliance Cosmetics online store will help you to choose the necessary paste for shugaring and get acquainted with the methods of its application.

How to work with sugar paste for shugaring

As with any profession related to working with hands, shugaring needs to be professionally learned from a teacher who “puts a hand” and teaches the correct technique for carrying out this procedure.

For this purpose, for all professionals of beauty salons, specialists of cosmetology centers, and for everyone, the company Alliance Cosmetics organizes special courses where you can learn how to do sugar depilation with the help of drugs of the Arabia brand.

How to use paste for shugaring

In most cases, a depilatory paste is required to be preheated before applying to the skin, however, there are pastes with a softer density that do not require additional preparation.

It is possible to warm up a paste for a shugaring both in a microwave or on a water bath, and in a wax melt. It is important that it becomes plastic, but it does not burn and does not spread. Thick paste requires more time for additional preparation than soft. Do not overheat the soft paste. Otherwise, it will spread.

How to prepare for the depilation of sugar paste

Deciding to remove hair with sugar paste, do not neglect the preparatory stage. Then, subject to all measures, depilation will be better and painless.

  • Irreplaceable in preparation for sugar depilation is a pre-depilation lotion for skin degreasing. It gently cleanses the skin, reduces pain and helps to avoid irritation and the occurrence of inflammation.
  • Then it is recommended to apply ARVIA talc to the skin for depilation. It absorbs excess sweat and improves the adhesion of sugar to hair, increasing the effectiveness of the procedure.

How to use paste for shugaring at home

If you want to do sugar depilation at home, first of all, you need to choose the right paste. Depending on the depilation zone, a paste of a certain density is used.

You can read more about this information in our previous article - “Which shugaring paste is better?”

Next - go directly to the procedure itself.

Ways of carrying out sugar depilation

There are two techniques for hair removal using shugaring:

  • bandage (using special strips for depilation)
  • and manual (by hands).

The most common at home received a second method.

In general, preliminary preparation and cleansing of the skin surface before and after sugar depilation are the same for all shugaring techniques. The difference lies directly in the methods of removing unwanted hair.

How to make sugar depilation with the help of manual techniques

Removing hair using a manual technique, you should:

  • Take a lump of sugar paste and slightly knead it in your hands.
  • Then, this lump should be put at the beginning of the depilated area and held so that it melts on the body temperature, because melting point of the paste is 37 degrees.
  • Do not attempt to cover the entire area to be depilated with one piece. It is better to choose a small area and stretch it over the surface of the skin against the direction of hair growth, and tear it in the opposite direction.
  • After the first stall, the lump can be used several more times, until it loses all the necessary properties. Otherwise, you should take a new portion of the paste and do the same manipulations with it.

What to look for when using shugaring bandage technique

Banding hair removal technique prevails during shugaring in a beauty salon. At home, it rarely finds use.

Banding technique shugaring easier manual. It significantly saves time and amount of the drug spent on epilation. Its effectiveness is evident when removing hair on large areas of the body.

The essence of this technique is the use of bandages or special strips. They can be both from dense paper, and polymeric.

To carry out this procedure suitable paste from cans and cartridges. The main difference is that in the first case it will be necessary to use a spatula to apply the paste on the skin, and in the second case just to hold the cartridge along the depilated area. Thanks to the built-in roller applicator, the mixture is distributed evenly.

Professionals advise the use of medium-density pasta for shugaring banding technology. The consistency of it should resemble liquid honey, but not spread.

How to work shugaring paste for bandage technology

  • After skin preparation, a soft sugar paste is applied to the depilated area with a cartridge or spatula. It is important that the track corresponds to the size of the bandage or strips for depilation. It is about 7 cm wide. Paste should be applied against the direction of hair growth.
  • Next, attach the bandage to the “sugar lane”, leaving untouched a small edge to grip. Stretch a strip with a paste against the growth of hair, about 1 centimeter (this is necessary in order to achieve a better grip with the hair).
  • Then tear the strip strictly parallel to the skin. in the direction of hair growth. It is necessary to slightly tighten the skin. This will help reduce pain.

If you do everything correctly, the depilation will be effective, and the client will be able to avoid ingrown hairs in the future. This is one of the advantages of shugaring over other types of unwanted hair removal.

The final stage of the shugaring

After depilation, it is recommended to remove excess sugar paste.

  • Saline water with mint and Arabia vitamins is best suited for this purpose. It perfectly moisturizes and soothes the skin, helps relieve irritation and normalizes the level of sensitivity.
  • Then, Arabia mousse can be applied to the skin after depilation with cotton extract or cream with ylang-ylang oil. They will make the skin smooth and radiant, remove possible redness and allow you to fix an incredible result.

How to choose the right density paste

In composition, all pastes are the same. Some, besides the main components (glucose and fructose), include honey and essential oils. These supplements are good for the skin, but do not affect the quality of shugaring.
According to the consistency of the paste are divided into soft, medium and dense.

There are several factors to consider when choosing.

  • Technique performance.
    For the manual method, the sugar mass of a denser consistency is chosen. Shugaring using a bandage method is performed using a soft paste or cartridge.
  • The air temperature in the room.
    In hot rooms, it is better to work with a dense sugar mass.
  • The temperature of the hands of the person performing the shugaring.
    The warmer the arms, the denser the means should be.
  • Temperature in different parts of the body.
    For example, arms and legs are always colder than the underarm area.
  • The thickness and type of hair.
    For tough hairs fit denser formulations.
    Beginners should choose a medium-density sugar mixture. Plastic mass fits well and is suitable for hair removal in any area.

The difference in density

Soft sugar mass hair removal looks like fresh honey and has a soft and delicate texture. It does not hurt even the most delicate and delicate skin, suitable for the removal of fine non-rigid hairs.

Medium density pasta most popular with beginners and professionals. Suitable for all skin types, it is convenient to work on different parts of the body.

Shugaring thick sugar paste prefer to do the wizard. The mass quickly hardens, while working with it, certain skills are required, but a tough mixture copes with any tasks.

If you do shugaring at home for the first time, please note that the soft mass smears more easily on the skin, and the hard mass does not stick well, but is well removed.

How to use soft paste

The product is suitable for large areas, it is well applied and does not cause discomfort.

Mass is heated for about five seconds in the microwave. If the jar was stored at room temperature and the mass is similar to liquid honey, you can not warm it.

A small piece is taken and without kneading it is rolled over the skin. When working with a soft paste, your fingers do not get tired and your hair is clean. But during removal, difficulties often arise. If the sugar path cannot be torn off, a layer of thicker paste can be applied on top of it. Conveniently remove sticking with a paper strip.

Soft paste is used in bandage technology. The mass should be heated to such a state that it is easy to apply, but does not spread on the skin. The mixture is applied with a spatula against the growth of hair and is removed with special bandages or strips of cotton or linen.

Note! The bands break not sideways or upwards, but strictly horizontally to the skin.

When working with manual technology in hot rooms, a soft tool sticks.

How to use medium density paste

The best option for any sites. It is convenient to work with a mass of medium consistency at any temperature. It removes fine, not too hard hairs well. It can be applied to bandage and manual equipment. Experts recommend the use of medium-density caramel to those who make shugaring for the first time.

Plastic mass with a slight pressure is applied against the growth of hair and breaks off a sharp movement in the opposite direction. One piece can be used several times.
Make sure that the shugaring paste is well glued to the skin, then it will remove all hair.

How to use a dense (hard, hard) paste

The mass is like a dark thick caramel. It is recommended for hard hair and remove stuck sugar tracks. After warming up it becomes supple.

A piece of warming up in the hands to the plastic state and carefully wipe into the skin. Too tight caramel will have to knead for a long time, squeeze and stretch.

It is convenient to work with a dense paste without gloves. It softens faster.

Means is suitable for "hot" hands and work in warm rooms.

How to use paste in cartridges

Special cassettes with rollers are designed for banding techniques.

For beginners, this is the most convenient option. It requires a minimum of effort, hands do not contact with the paste. It is quickly spread and easily removed by strips.

The cartridge is heated in a microwave or wax wax. The sugar mixture is applied to the skin with a roller, pressed against the strip and removed according to hair growth.

You can try pastes of various consistencies to choose the most suitable for the type of hair and determine which one is more convenient to use.

Features of work

They work with soft paste only on dry, pre-cleansed skin. Apply it with a spatula evenly thin layer AGAINST hair growth.

Top cover with a special paper strip, hold the hand for a more reliable grip and remove the strip by hair growth with a sharp movement. During the breakdown, the strips lightly tighten the skin with the free hand in order to avoid pressure on the vessels. It is very important to remove the strip in the direction of "back" (parallel to the skin), and not "up".

Then the procedure is repeated on another site. After epilation, rinse the area to be epilated with clean warm water and wipe dry with a towel. If possible, you can wipe with a soothing cleansing lotion.

When hairs begin to germinate, masters usually recommend scrubbing (legs 1-2 times a week, bikini 2-3 times a week) in order to avoid ingrown hair.

When working with soft sugar paste, consider the following:

  • This paste is intended only for bandage equipment,
  • It can be applied to the area of ​​the body, and then removed only once,
  • Soft paste is difficult to use in hot rooms, it just starts

  • Banding technique is suitable for work on any area of ​​the body, except for the bikini area, underarms, face.
  • We use a dense (hard) paste

    Dense shugaring paste designed for working in hot rooms and for people with hot hands. It requires heating and maintain operating temperature throughout the procedure. Same it must be stretched before use.

    The positive side of the dense sugar paste can truly appreciate the experienced craftsmen. She is very economical - This is a noticeable plus when working (sometimes it is possible to process a single piece with a small piece of one zone).

    You can work with pasta in a hot room, even in summer without air conditioning. It can also be added in the process of working in a paste of medium density to restore working qualities.

    After use:

    Close the paste jar tightly and store in a cool dry place. Note, fridge for storing pasta is not suitable!

    Moisture inside the package may cause a “sticky” layer on the surface. This layer can be removed with a clean spoon or spatula - the paste will remain suitable for use.


    The combined heater combines the characteristics of a can and a cassette.

    The design of this device allows you to heat up both the sugar mass in the banks and the cartridges. The heating process is controlled by a thermostat.

    Usually the combined apparatus is used in beauty salons when the master is working on the stream.

    Popular models of combined waxing machines

    • Venko 005 C - for 2 cassettes and banks. Volume 400 ml. Power 100 watts. There is a base-stand, the indicator of the heater.
    • Opus YM-8327 - for 3 cartridges and jars. Volume 800 ml. Power 320 watts. There is a base-stand, temperature control, indicator of the heater, a plastic protective holder for cassettes.

    How to choose a heater: choose waxing for shugaring

    In order not to be mistaken in the choice of instrument, need to know in advance what criteria to pay attention to when buying.

    • power,
    • cord length (if provided),
    • volume of heating capacity
    • heating rate
    • availability of the option to maintain the temperature
    • device stability (some models have suction cups at the bottom of the base),
    • the presence of independent thermostats, so you can prepare a paste of different temperatures for hair removal in different zones,
    • a brand (a famous brand is always concerned about the quality of its products),
    • Does the apparatus have a spatula compartment?

    These nuances make waxing more functional, and its use is safe and convenient.

    In general, before buying equipment for shugaring, decide how often you will use it.

    For personal use, such devices are rarely used. If shugaring is carried out once a month at home, then the simplest model of a cassette heater is enough. With this device it is easy to remove not thick, not hard hair. The power and rate of heating of the device in this case has a minimum value.

    Experts recommend buying heaters that work on the principle of an electric kettle. They have a cartridge installed in the charging slot, and at the time of the procedure is completely removed from it. Such voskoplav can be used in any convenient place.

    How to use a sugar paste heater: how to warm up a wax shugaring paste

    It is easy to use wax-melt even to the beginning master.

    • place the cartridge or jar in a special niche,
    • turn on the machine and set the desired temperature
    • wait until the paste has the desired consistency, it will take several minutes (depending on the power of the device),
    • at this time prepare the skin for hair removal: cover it with a special cleansing and preparing gel / lotion, and then wipe it dry,
    • if you are using a cartridge, turn it over and wait until the mass starts to flow out a little, then start processing,
    • Using a roller or spatula, coat the epilation area (about 10-12 cm) with the sugar mass against the direction of hair growth,
    • treat uneven areas with areas no larger than 2–3 cm, and skin should be stretched,
    • by a sharp movement of the hand in the opposite direction, remove unwanted vegetation in the direction of growth, do not forget to hold the skin,
    • Treat your skin with a soothing lotion.

    Caring for waxing after use

    Like any cosmetic equipment, waxing for shugaring requires special care. But this care is simple and does not require much effort.

    If waxing is soiled in progress, the remnants of the paste cleaned with a cotton pad moistened with vegetable oil. The heater is cleaned immediately, until the caramel had time to harden.

    Warming up sugar paste in any wax mill is an effective, safe, simple method. It does not require special knowledge and skills. There are many varieties of modern appliances.

    Watch the video: Picking your Wax 201 Part 1 Alternative Waxes (December 2019).